Dr. Tanya Smith with a lemur, courtesy of Dr. Smith Summary
Dr. Tanya Smith of Griffith University talks about teeth — everything from individual development to using teeth to understand past environments and lifestyles. She also talks about some of the cultural practices surrounding teeth.
What to read to learn more: What she’s reading for work right now: Ancient environments in east Africa Climate reconstruction via chemical changes in teeth What she’s consuming for fun: BONUS – What I was reading: Reference articles
Smith, T.M.,* Austin, C.*, Green, D.R.* Joannes-Boyau, R.* Bailey, S., Dumitriu, D., Fallon, S., Grün, R., James, H.F., Moncel, M-H., Williams, I.S., Wood, R., Arora, M. (2018) Wintertime stress, nursing, and lead exposure in Neanderthal children. Sci. Adv. 4: eaau9483 . * These authors contributed equally to this work. Papakyrikos, A.P., Arora, M., Austin, C., Boughner, J.C., Capellini, T.D., Dingwall, H.L., Greba, Q., Howland, J.G., Kato, A., Wang, X-P., Smith, T.M. (2020) Biological clocks and incremental growth line formation in dentine. J. Anat. 237: 367–378. Anthropology Has a Bullying Problem Too — blog by Tanya Smith
Dr. Daniel Lieberman, courtesy of himself. Summary
Dr. Daniel Lieberman of Harvard talks about considering human evolution through adaptations to run. He also explains mismatch diseases and the types of preventative care we can take to keep ourselves healthy. We also chat about diversity and the importance of including your study population in your work.
What to read to learn more: What he’s reading for work right now: Effects of physical activity on morbidity and mortality Inflammation Epidemiology Locomotor biomechanics Effects of exercise and metabolism What he’s consuming for fun right now: Reference articles:
Bramble, D., Lieberman, D. Endurance running and the evolution of . Homo Nature 432, 345–352 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03052 Lieberman, D., Venkadesan, M., Werbel, W. et al. Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners. Nature 463, 531–535 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08723 D. E. Lieberman, M. Mahaffey, S. Cubesare Ouimare, N.B. Holowka, I.J. Wallace, and A.L. Baggish. 2020. “ Running in Tarahumara (Rarámuri) Culture: Persistence Hunting, Footracing, Dancing, Work, and the Fallacy of the Athletic Savage.” Current Anthropology, 61, 3.
Figure courtesy of Dr. David Raichlen from his article in Trends in Neurosciences Summary
Dr. David Raichlen of USC talks about using evolutionary biology to understand modern health consequences. For example, can aerobic exercise paired with mental stimulation result in the formation of neurons? If so, why? And how can we apply that information to helping modern humans live healthier lives?
What to read to learn more: What he’s reading for work right now: What he’s consuming for fun right now: BONUS – What I was reading: Reference articles:
Raichlen, David & Pontzer, Herman & Zderic, Theodore & Harris, Jacob & Mabulla, Audax ZP & Hamilton, Marc & Wood, Brian. (2020). Sitting, squatting, and the evolutionary biology of human inactivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117. 201911868. 10.1073/pnas.1911868117. Pontzer, Herman & Wood, Brian & Raichlen, David. (2018). Hunter-gatherers as models in public health: Hunter-gatherer health and lifestyle. Obesity Reviews. 19. 24-35. 10.1111/obr.12785. Raichlen, David & Alexander, Gene. (2017). Adaptive Capacity: An Evolutionary Neuroscience Model Linking Exercise, Cognition, and Brain Health. Trends in Neurosciences. 40. 10.1016/j.tins.2017.05.001. Raichlen, David & Alexcander, Gene A. (2020). Why your brain needs exercise: The evolutionary history of humans explains why physical activity is important for brain health. Scientific American. 322, 1.
Dr. John Verano carefully excavating human remains from an archaeological dig. Photo courtesy of Dr. Verano. Summary
Dr. John Verano of Tulane University wades into forensic anthropology and bioarchaeology. He discusses some of the realities of working with the recently deceased before switching gears to talk about a giant sacrifice site that he’s been working on in Peru. Plus, find out what mummies smell like.
What to read to learn more: What he’s reading for work right now: What he’s reading for fun right now: Reference articles
Dr. Becker with Illimani in the background. Courtesy of Dr. Becker. Summary
Dr. Sara Becker of UC – Riverside studies the Tiwanaku culture of Lake Titicaca. She specializes in understanding hierarchy and labor patterns via physical activity markers on the bone. She combines modern ethnographic methods with archaeology and biological anthropology to understand ancient cultures.
Extra educational photos
Frost’s Mechanostat (Utah Paradigm)
Image from Wikipedia.
The above figure illustrates how bone responds to stress. Below a certain threshold of strain, humans will lose bone. In the adapted state, bone mass will remain constant. Once sufficient loads are placed on bone, cells will respond by building bone. If the loads exceed the mechanical limits of the bone, fracture will occur.
If you’d like to learn more about bone modeling and remodeling, I strongly recommend
this article by Robling and Turner. Unilateral asymmetry in arm wrestlers
Arm wrestler Matthias Schlitte. (Image from Croatia Week. Used solely for educational purposes.)
Arm wrestler Jeff Dabe. (Image from the Huffington Post. Used solely for educational purposes.) Reference articles
Becker, Sara. (2016). Skeletal Evidence of Craft Production from the Ch’iji Jawira Site in Tiwanaku, Bolivia. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. 9. 10.1016/j.jasrep.2016.08.017. Becker, Sara. (2019). Osteoarthritis, entheses, and long bone cross-sectional geometry in the Andes: Usage, history, and future directions. International Journal of Paleopathology. 10.1016/j.ijpp.2019.08.005. Becker, Sara. (2019). Labor across an Occupational and Gendered Taskscape: Bones and Bodies of the Tiwanaku State (A.D. 500–1100). Bioarchaeology International. 3. 118-141. 10.5744/bi.2019.1010. Becker, Sara. (2019). Evaluating elbow osteoarthritis within the prehistoric Tiwanaku state using generalized estimating equations (GEE). American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 169. 10.1002/ajpa.23806. Becker, Sara & Goldstein, Paul. (2017). Evidence of Osteoarthritis in the Tiwanaku Colony, Moquegua, Peru (AD 500-1100). International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. 10.1002/oa.2634. Becker, Sara. (2017). 4 Community Labor and Laboring Communities within the Tiwanaku State (C.E. 500-1100): Community Labor and Laboring Communities. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association. 28. 38-53. 10.1111/apaa.12087.
Dr. Billeck, courtesy of himself Summary
Dr. Bill Billeck is the program manager for the National Museum of Natural History repatriation office at the Smithsonian. Dr. Billeck explains how repatriation works, what it’s like working with tribes, and shares some stories.
What to read to learn more: What he’s reading for work right now: History of the Cree in Canada and the U.S.A. What he’s reading for fun: A book on training puppies Reference articles
Baby capuchin riding on mother’s back. Photo courtesy of Dr. Jack. Summary
Dr. Katharine Jack of Tulane University talks about non-human primates, reproductive strategies, the importance of collaborative science, and what to do if you run into a capuchin in the wild.
What to read to learn more: What she’s reading for work right now: What she’s consuming for fun: Reference articles
Jack KM and Fedigan LM. 2018. Alpha male capuchins ( Cebus capucinus imitator): Keystone individuals or generics in a keystone role? In: U. Kalbitzer & K.M. Jack (eds.), Primate Life History, Sex Roles, and Adaptability: Essays in honour of Linda M. Fedigan, Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects, pp. 91-115. Springer: Switzerland. Brasington LF, Wikberg EC, Kawamura S, Fedigan LM, Jack KM. 2017. Infant mortality in white-faced capuchins: The impact of alpha male replacements. American Journal of Primatology, 79:e22725. Wikberg EC, Jack KM, Fedigan LM, Campos FA, Sato A, Bergstrom M, Hiwatashi T, Kawamura S. 2017. Inbreeding avoidance and female mate choice shape reproductive skew in capuchin monkeys (). Cebus capucinus Molecular Ecology, 26: 653-677. Jack KM, Schoof VA, Sheller CR, Rich CR, Kligelhofer PP, Fedigan LM, and Ziegler TE. 2014. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus). General and Comparative Endocrinology, 195: 58-67.
Dr. de la Cova working at the Smithsonian. Courtesy of her personal collection. Summary
Dr. Carlina de la Cova of the University of South Carolina discusses forensic anthropology, historical bioarchaeology focusing on marginalized groups, and the overlap between the two.
What to read to learn more: What she’s reading for work: What she’s consuming for fun: Reference articles
de la Cova C. 2019. Marginalized bodies and the construction of the Robert J. Terry anatomical skeletal collection: A promised land lost. In Mant M and Holland A (eds.) Bioarchaeology of Marginalized People. Orlando: Academic Press, pp. 133-155. Stevens W, de la Cova C, Young C, Judge C. 2018. Skeletal Remains from the School of Anatomy, DeSaussure College, University of South Carolina. In Hodge SC and Shuler KA (eds.) Bioarchaeology of the Southeast: Bridging Bones and Behavior. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, pp. 197-224. de la Cova C. 2017. Fractured Lives: Structural Violence, Trauma, and Recidivism in Urban and Institutionalized 19th-century-born African Americans and Euro-Americans. In Tegemeyer C and Martin D (eds.) Broken Bones, Broken Bodies: Bioarchaeological and Forensic Approaches For Accumulative Trauma and Violence. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Press, pp. 153-180. de la Cova C. 2017. Army Healthcare for Sable Soldiers and Contrabands During the American Civil War. In Tegemeyer C and Martin D (eds.) Bioarchaeology of Women and Children in Times of War. New York: Springer Press, pp 129-148. Muller JL, Pearlstein KE, de la Cova C. 2016. Dissection and Documented Skeletal Collections: Embodiments of Legalized Inequality. In K Nystrom (ed.) The Bioarchaeology of Dissection and Autopsy in the United States. New York: Springer, pp. 185-201. de la Cova C. 2014. The biological effects of urbanization and in-migration on 19th-century-born African Americans and Euro-Americans of low socioeconomic status: An anthropological and historical approach. In MK Zuckerman (ed.), Modern Environments and Human Health: Revisiting the Second Epidemiological Transition. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 243-266. de la Cova C. 2012. Trauma Patterns in 19th-Century-Born African American and Euro-American Females. International Journal of Paleopathology 2: 61–68. de la Cova C. 2011. Race, health, and disease in 19th-century-born males. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 144: 526–537.
Dr. Scott Williams in his office at NYU. He’s standing in front of his vintage German illustration of Proconsul, a Miocene primate Summary
Dr. Scott Williams of NYU talks about transitional fossils, the evolution of different postures and forms of locomotion, old books, and new ideas.
“March of Progress” — The original Time-Life Illustration by F. Clark Howell. From Dr. Williams’ personal collection. Reference articles
Dr. William’s bio Williams, Scott & Meyer, Marc & Nalla, Shahed & Nalley, Thierra & Eyre, Jennifer & Prang, Thomas & Bastir, Markus & Schmid, Peter & Churchill, Steven & Berger, Lee & García-Martínez, Daniel. (2019). The Vertebrae, Ribs, and Sternum of Australopithecus sediba. 10.4207/PA.2018.ART113. Williams, Scott. (2018). Was the last common ancestor aping a chimp or just monkeying around?. Journal of Human Evolution. 121. 10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.04.007. Spear, Jeffrey & Williams, Scott. (2018). Scapular breadth is associated with forelimb‐dominated suspensory behavior in Atelidae: Comments on Selby and Lovejoy (2017). American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 167. 10.1002/ajpa.23599. Williams, Scott & Bastir, Markus & García-Martínez, Daniel & Meyer, Marc & Nalla, Shahed & Schmid, Peter & Barash, Alon & OISHI, MOTOHARU & Ogihara, Naomichi & Churchill, Steven & Hawks, John & Berger, Lee. (2017). Geometric morphometrics of hominoid thoraces and its bearing for reconstructing the ribcage of H. naledi. AAPA conference paper. Meyer, Marc & Williams, Scott. (2017). How did early hominins hold their heads? New evidence on head posture from the australopith cervical spine. AAPA conference paper. Meyer, Marc & Williams, Scott & Schmid, Peter & Churchill, Steven & Berger, Lee. (2017). The cervical spine of Australopithecus sediba. Journal of Human Evolution. 104. 32-49. 10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.01.001. Randolph-Quinney, Patrick & Williams, Scott & Steyn, Maryna & Meyer, Marc & Smilg, Jackie & Churchill, Steven & Odes, Edward & Augustine, Tanya & Tafforeau, Paul & Berger, Lee. (2016). Osteogenic tumour in Australopithecus sediba: Earliest hominin evidence for neoplastic disease. South African Journal of Science. 112. #2015-0470. 10.17159/sajs.2016/20150470.